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The new science of mathematical probability had come into being on thecontinent just around the time that Locke was writing theEssay. His account of probability, however, shows little orno awareness of mathematical probability. Rather it reflects an oldertradition that treated testimony as probable reasoning. Given thatLocke’s aim, above all, is to discuss what degree of assent we shouldgive to various religious propositions, the older conception ofprobability very likely serves his purposes best. Thus, when Lockecomes to describe the grounds for probability he cites the conformityof the proposition to our knowledge, observation and experience, andthe testimony of others who are reporting their observation andexperience. Concerning the latter we must consider the number ofwitnesses, their integrity, their skill in observation, countertestimony and so on. In judging rationally how much to assent to aprobable proposition, these are the relevant considerations that themind should review. We should, Locke also suggests, be tolerant ofdiffering opinions as we have more reason to retain the opinions wehave than to give them up to strangers or adversaries who may wellhave some interest in our doing so.

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As noted, most studies on the relationship between science andreligion have focused on science and Christianity, with only a smallnumber of publications devoted to other religious traditions (e.g.,Brooke and Numbers 2011). Relatively few monographs pay attention tothe relationship between science and religion in non-Christian milieus(e.g., Judaism and Islam in Clark 2014). Since western science makesuniversal claims, it is easy to assume that its encounter with otherreligious traditions is similar to the interactions observed inChristianity. However, given different creedal tenets (e.g., in Hindutraditions God is usually not entirely distinct from creation, unlikein Christianity and Judaism), and because science has had distincthistorical trajectories in other cultures, one can expect disanalogiesin the relationship between science and religion in differentreligious traditions. To give a sense of this diversity, this sectionprovides a bird’s eye overview of science and religion inChristianity, Islam, and Hinduism.

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Phenomenology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Husserl’s work was followed by a flurry of phenomenological writingin the first half of the 20th century. The diversity oftraditional phenomenology is apparent in the Encyclopedia ofPhenomenology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, Dordrecht andBoston), which features separate articles on some seven types ofphenomenology. (1) Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studieshow objects are constituted in pure or transcendental consciousness,setting aside questions of any relation to the natural world around us.(2) Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology studies how consciousnessconstitutes or takes things in the world of nature, assuming with thenatural attitude that consciousness is part of nature. (3) Existentialphenomenology studies concrete human existence, including ourexperience of free choice or action in concrete situations. (4)Generative historicist phenomenology studies how meaning, as found inour experience, is generated in historical processes of collectiveexperience over time. (5) Genetic phenomenology studies the genesis ofmeanings of things within one’s own stream of experience. (6)Hermeneutical phenomenology studies interpretive structures ofexperience, how we understand and engage things around us in our humanworld, including ourselves and others. (7) Realistic phenomenologystudies the structure of consciousness and intentionality, assuming itoccurs in a real world that is largely external to consciousness andnot somehow brought into being by consciousness.

Center for Alcohol Policy » Essay Contest

Having set forth the general machinery of how simple and complex ideasof substances, modes, relations and so forth are derived fromsensation and reflection Locke also explains how a variety ofparticular kinds of ideas, such as the ideas of solidity, number,space, time, power, identity, and moral relations arise from sensationand reflection. Several of these are of particular interest. Locke’schapter on power giving rise to a discussion of free will andvoluntary action. (See the entry on .)Locke also made a number of interesting claims in the philosophy ofmind. He suggested, for example, that for all we know, God could aseasily add the powers of perception and thought to matter organized inthe right way as he could add those powers to an immaterial substancewhich would then be joined to matter organized in the right way. Hisaccount of personal identity in II. xxvii was revolutionary. Both of these topics and related ones are treated in the supplementarydocument: