This course-series brings together leading scholars with critically-acclaimed artists, local teachers, youth, and community organizations to consider the complex relationships between culture, knowledge, pedagogy and social justice. Participants will examine the cultural meaning of knowledge as "the 5th element" of Hip Hop Culture (in addition to MCing, DJing, graffiti, and dance) and how educators and cultural workers have leveraged this knowledge for social justice. Overall, participants will gain a strong theoretical knowledge of culturally relevant and culturally sustaining pedagogies and learn to apply this knowledge by engaging with guest artists, teachers, youth, and community youth arts organizations.
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Article One Sheltered instruction: An empowerment framework for English language learners by Helen Abadiano and Jesse Turner discuss the movement in the early 1900s to develop standards for bilingual education in response to “Goals 2000: Educate America Act” along with other legislation designed to promote higher expectations in academia for all students (Abadiano & Turner, 2003).
Education in the United States - Wikipedia
The articles I read and summarized relate to some of the issues that have evolved from various proponents and opponents of how education should be presented to ELs in the United States.
“Being Bilingual” Essay Contest
The essence of Lau was codified into federal law though the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 (EEOA), soon after the case was decided. Section 1703(f) of this act declares: "No state shall deny educational opportunities to an individual on account of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin by … (f) the failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs."
American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection
- Its effects are a focus of the essay on the Makah by Dr. Ann M. Renker who serves as the bilingual education coordinator for the Cape Flattery School District. "One common misunderstanding about the Makah people," she writes, "is that the culture has stayed exactly the same for thousands of years." As it did throughout the Pacific Northwest and, indeed throughout the New World, western trade goods and diseases profoundly changed traditional Makah life and culture. The change continued as invading newcomers forced their beliefs and ways of life upon them, often in the name of progress, ratified by treaty and law and backed up with the threat of force.
Stony Brook Undergraduate Bulletin - Fall 2017 - LIN
Stephen Krashen of the University of Southern California believes that bilingual education is successful in its efforts and that the success of bilingual education is due to the “knowledge-transfer theory”.
LIN 200: Language in the United States
United States v. Texas (1971, 1981) includes mandates that affect all Texas schools. The court ordered the district to create a plan and implement language programs that would help Mexican American students learn English and adjust to American culture and also help Anglo students learn Spanish. The court relied heavily on the testimony of José Cardenas and his theory of incompatibilities, which blames the educational failure of students on the inadequacies of school programs rather than on students themselves. (For a complete discussion of the theory, see Cardenas & Cardenas, 1977.)