Spaniards remade the New World's ecological systems. Imported cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and donkeys dominated the landscape. Chickens became a barnyard staple. Sugar, bananas, and citrus fruits were introduced and flourished. In many places, the landscape was altered beyond recognition. Spain was a land of shepherds and cattle ranchers, and many farmers in Spain were put out of business as the rich, herd-owning, land-owning aristocracy obtained the legal rights for their livestock to overrun the land. Spain's great herds helped make it such an arid land, and the same thing happened to New Spain. South of the great bison herds of North America, there were no large roaming herds of grazing animals. Huge tracts of farmland were destroyed throughout the New World by those imported European grazers, and areas previously cultivated or unused were quickly destroyed, leaving a desert-like environment behind. In Spain, sheep dominated. In New Spain, cattle dominated. Deforestation and mass grazing altered the landscape immensely. In a and eastern Atlantic islands, Spaniards noted that when they razed the forests for their lifestyles, streams dried up and eventually there was less rainfall. The desert-like environment of Mexico is not completely natural, but is partly the result of Spanish depredations. Not only was 75-90% of the human population exterminated, the first century of the Spanish invasion was also the greatest ecological catastrophe for native plants and animals in history, rivaled, and in ways exceeded, by what the English and Americans would later do to North America.
Life for the remnants of Native American tribes after their conquest, dispossession, and genocide was completed during the late 19th century. During the 20th century, the USA continued genocidal policies against Native Americans, including forced sterilization, forcible removal of children from their parents, to be raised in the white culture, more active undermining of tribal governance, and still more theft of their lands. Canada also did the same things. It was not until America’s Civil Rights era that Native Americans began making a comeback.
Essay about native american culture - …
- My own essay on Chief Seattle and Chief Joseph examines the impact of western history on the lives of two prominent native leaders - and their impact upon it. Seattle went out of his way to befriend Americans and recruited entrepreneurs among them in hopes of creating a community where native and newcomer could share its prosperity. Joseph used every skill at his command to preserve hispeople's freedom and secure their return to their homeland. Neither succeeded, and their ironic, tragic words continue to haunt our public conscience.
Religions of the world Menu Native American Spirituality
- Of all native art forms from the Northwest Coast, the most distinctive is the totem pole, misnamed but appreciated and duplicated with considerably liberty worldwide. In her essay about them, Dr. Robin K. Wright, curator of Native American art at the University of Washington's Burke Museum, looks to folklore for clues to the origin of their form and examines the impact of western influence upon its development. Because they were raised during potlatches, the ban on the latter seriously curtailed their creation, but the demands of tourists and museums created a market for them and for imitations. The irony highlights the peculiar ambivalence that has marked the relationship between native and non-native.
Native American Culture - Food and Recipes
- Its effects are a focus of the essay on the Makah by Dr. Ann M. Renker who serves as the bilingual education coordinator for the Cape Flattery School District. "One common misunderstanding about the Makah people," she writes, "is that the culture has stayed exactly the same for thousands of years." As it did throughout the Pacific Northwest and, indeed throughout the New World, western trade goods and diseases profoundly changed traditional Makah life and culture. The change continued as invading newcomers forced their beliefs and ways of life upon them, often in the name of progress, ratified by treaty and law and backed up with the threat of force.
Native American, Seven Fires Council - Mercer Online
- That any native traditions survived this onslaught owed to their resilience, the tenacity of their adherents and the willingness of individuals to impart their knowledge to linguists and ethnographers. The meaning and value of some of these traditions are described in the essay written by Coll-Peter Thrush, an historian at the University of Washington, on the Lushootseed peoples of Puget Sound, the native speakers of the Lushootseed language. By examining their culture, "through the lens of the Huchoosedah," a Lushootseed term meaning cultural and self knowledge, he provides an overview not commonly encountered in the scholarly research on Native Americans - one based upon the peoples' own perceptions of themselves.