Whereaspluralists are somewhat content with what they believe is a fair, if admittedly imperfect, system,the power elite school decries the grossly unequal and unjust distribution of power it findseverywhere.
Starting with these class indicators, we can show that the upper class is nationwide in its scope. This is because there is "overlapping" membership among the many social clubs around the country. A person from Chicago, for example, might belong to clubs in New York, Boston, and San Francisco, implying that he or she interacts with upper-class counterparts in those cities. By comparing dozens of club membership lists, we have been able to establish the "density" of this club network. (See the pages on for findings on social cohesion and a photo essay; and for a wonderfully detailed and colorful portrait of what one of these clubs is like, see this , which is one of the most central clubs in the social club/corporate executive network.)
Read this essay on Pluralist Perspective
First, we need to explicate further what it means to be oppressed“because you are a woman”. E.g., is the idea that there is aparticular form of oppression that is specific to women? Is to beoppressed “as a woman” to be oppressed in a particular way? Or can webe pluralists about what sexist oppression consists in withoutfragmenting the notion beyond usefulness?
The Theory of Citizen Participation - University of Oregon
Some pluralists contend that, since this acceptance ofdemocratic norms is higher among leaders than the general public,political disagreements are best settled at the top, where theycan be dealt with fairly and dispassionately.
φιλια [philia] Greek term for friendship or amiability
Since it is fair to say that pluralism is the most widelyaccepted interpretation of American government, it might beuseful to consider a concrete example to clarify the theory'smain points.
Election | Definition of Election by Merriam-Webster
(See the for more on myths and realities of public finances.)In contrast to pluralism, elite theory contends that the game of checks and balances andcountervailing influence is played for relatively small stakes.
The Philosophy of Social Science
Butwhereas pluralists view this passivity as understandable (people are too preoccupied with otherconcerns to take part in public affairs), if not beneficial (too many individuals placing demands ongovernment can clog the system), elite theorists see it as the inevitable consequence of importantdecisions being made at the highest levels.
Balance of Power Theory in Today’s International System
Participation can be direct in the classical democratic sense, or can be through representatives for their point of view in a pluralist-republican model (Kweit and Kweit, 1986 p.