The successes of inclusion are heavily contingent on a wide array of factors. The teacher directly affects whether or not inclusion will be a successful tactic. The level of preparation given to teachers prior to receiving students with special needs in their classroom directly affects the successes of inclusion. According to Vos & Bufkin the main priorities for preparing teachers for inclusion are adding content on special needs and appropriate interventions to the course material in education training courses and practical experience in an inclusive classroom. These two strategies provide teachers with knowledge about differentiation as an instructional strategy and other methods, and with the opportunities to develop collaborative skills with parents, and other paraprofessionals in the field. All of these factors have been shown to help teachers to develop confidence in their ability to include all students and therefore enhance positive attitudes towards inclusion. In further demonstrating this, Vos & Bunkin found that teachers were significantly more confident in their ability to educate special needs students after undergoing a 400-hour continuing education class. Although this study demonstrated that continuing education can improve the successes of inclusion, teachers that cannot access continuing education focusing on students with disabilities tend to lack the confidence and knowledge needed to education this population.
Ball and Green argue that a change needs to take place in order for inclusion to be successful. Specifically, schools need organizational, attitudinal and instructional changes to benefit from inclusion. A good school leader must have the skills to initiate and direct these changes and to motivate the school staff to commit to inclusion. A shared vision was also found to be an essential element influencing the successes of inclusion. However, the school leader must have the skills to create a positive culture within the school and implement strategies that promote inclusion. Just as the teachers need to be trained and prepared to embrace inclusion, the school leader must also undergo the necessary training to be able to lead the school in adopting inclusive practices. DiPialol & Tschannen-Moran further concurred in outlining requirements of the school leaders as “a solid understanding of special education laws, research-based practices related to special education, and the instructional challenges faced by teachers who work with students with disabilities. The lack of proper training and preparation of the school leaders could be a possible cause for schools not opting for inclusion or for the unsuccessful implementation of inclusive education programs in some schools.
Defining Special Education Essay - Free Articles
It is, of course, quite true that bits and pieces of the mediaeval traditionstill linger, or have been revived, in the ordinary school syllabus oftoday. Some knowledge of grammar is still required when learning a foreignlanguage--perhaps I should say, "is again required," for duringmy own lifetime, we passed through a phase when the teaching of declensionsand conjugations was considered rather reprehensible, and it was consideredbetter to pick these things up as we went along. School debating societiesflourish; essays are written; the necessity for "self- expression"is stressed, and perhaps even over-stressed. But these activities are cultivatedmore or less in detachment, as belonging to the special subjects in whichthey are pigeon-holed rather than as forming one coherent scheme of mentaltraining to which all "subjects"stand in a subordinate relation."Grammar" belongs especially to the "subject" of foreignlanguages, and essay-writing to the "subject" called "English";while Dialectic has become almost entirely divorced from the rest of thecurriculum, and is frequently practiced unsystematically and out of schoolhours as a separate exercise, only very loosely related to the main businessof learning. Taken by and large, the great difference of emphasis betweenthe two conceptions holds good: modern education concentrates on "teachingsubjects," leaving the method of thinking, arguing, and expressingone's conclusions to be picked up by the scholar as he goes along' mediaevaleducation concentrated on first forging and learning to handle the toolsof learning, using whatever subject came handy as a piece of material onwhich to doodle until the use of the tool became second nature.