Epistemology attempts to answer these such questions.

Suppose we ask "Why is the sum of two and two four?" Isn't theanswer "It couldn't be any other way" perfectly satisfactory? Sosometimes, at least, a request for explaining the truth of pis met in a satisfying way by pointing out that p isnecessarily true. Why, then, should we not be satisfied whenindependence foundationalists answer the J-question by saying thatperceptual experiences are necessarily a source ofjustification? To find out whether we should be satisfied, we mightemploy thought experiments. We might try to describe a possible worldin which, to use our example again, someone sees an object that looksblue to her, but the object's looking blue to her does not give her anyjustification at all for believing that the object is actually blue. Ifwe can conceive of such a possible world, then we have reason to thinkthat independence foundationalists are mistaken when they say thatperceptual experience is necessarily a source of justification.

His theory of epistemology is based on his belief that humans are naturally aware of God.

In Arthur Caplan's 1992 paper entitled "Does The Philosophy of Medicine Exist?" he argues that if a philosophy of medicine existed it would be concerned with epistemological or metaphysical questions.


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Caplan states "The goal of the philosophy of medicine is epistemological" (71).

Although the effort to develop an adequate theory of knowledge is at least as old as's , epistemology has dominated Western philosophy only since the era of and, as an extended dispute between and over the respective importance of origins.


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Groups engage in epistemic activity all the time. In the philosophy of mind and action there is a matured literature advancing competing theories of what groups are and how they do what they do. More recently, social epistemology has also flourished, expanding and making connections with other areas of philosophy. With these two philosophical lenses now beginning to align themselves, the new vista before us is that of collective epistemology—a natural next step for social epistemology. The essays in this book are essays in collective epistemology, and explore different epistemic aspects of the behaviour of different sorts of group—institutional bodies, the moral community, informal groups, religious communities, the state, or simply the population at large. Each essay has a particular focus that brings it under one of the following broad section headings: Epistemology, Ethics, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Science. Together the essays indicate the richness and complexity of the philosophical issues generated by thinking about the epistemic life of groups.

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Scholars,publishers, and other experts represent specific interests and credentialingprocesses, and their knowledge claims must satisfy the political andepistemological criteria of the contexts in which they reside.

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In the interest of obtaining a greater understanding for Piaget’s theories as well as the processes behind those theories, we must first look at Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology.