Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons. He died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia at an unknown location. His descendants went on to stretch the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states out of all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asian countries, and substantial portions of modern Eastern Europe, Russia and the Middle East. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.
Although the death of Genghis Khan in 1227 was a respite for the Jin Dynasty, it was not entirely an end to the Mongols’ invasion. After the death of Genghis, Ogodei Khan took over the invasion, leading a strong operation against the Jin dynasty. The Jin dynasty finally submitted to the Mongols in 1234, after the emperor fled the city of Kaifeng, only to commit suicide after a pursuit by the Mongol army (Turnbull 35).
Genghis Khan’s military leadership resulted in making a great empire.
In the struggle among the grandsons of Genghis Khan to be his successor, Batu successfully sabotaged regent Oghul Khaimish’s (Guyuk’s widow) attempt to have the Mongol council elect one of her sons the next khaghan. Batu was not interested in being khaghan, but as the descendant of the eldest son of Genghis, he wanted the role of kingmaker and was successful in having Mongke elected the fourth khaghan in 1251. Mongke immediately consolidated his position by ruthlessly purging and killing his cousins and other relatives from the Ogotai and Chagatai (Genghis’s second son) branches of the family and their supporters.
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The death of Genghis Khan did not mean the end of the Mongol military operation against the surrounding dynasties. Each of the succeeding Khans continued with the military conquest of the lands, going into Korea, Russia, Middle East, and Europe, eventually establishing the greatest empire in world history spanning Asia and Europe through military conquest. The small nomadic tribes of the Mongols had become united under each successive Khan, used resilience, military wit and sheer will to conquer lands and subdue their enemies. Throughout their military campaigns, the Mongol’s army took lessons, which enabled them conquer their enemies and adversaries. The military might, the willingness to learn, and the use of military intelligence and tactics enabled the Mongols to expand, and even in their decline, they left a legacy of military superiority and wit, carried through the generations of the Khans.
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Genghis Khan à la conquete du monde
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Genghis Khan’s expanse into the world and building an empire began with the Xixia campaign. In between the campaign the eventual establishment of the Yuan dynasty that stretched into China, Khan had fought against the Syrians, Afghani, and the Khwarazm Empire (Turnbull 31). All the conquests were a precursor to the eventual military campaign against the Jin and the Song dynasties, which essentially cemented Khan’s position as the ruler of the largest empire in world history. The fall of Beijing, Jin dynasty’s capital, signified the beginning of Khan’s rule of China.