This section includes some of the more widely used anthologies that reproduce excerpts of previously published works by writers, essayists, travelers, and poets in environmental literature and culture. is as an early anthology used in environmental writing courses in the early to mid-1990s, during the early expansion of ecocriticism as a field. Another batch of anthologies emerged on the market in the late 1990s. diversifies the range of nature and environmental writers and even includes some international figures. is a comprehensive textbook and reader that differs from many of the readers in this list, which mainly reproduce experts of previously published material. Many of the earlier volumes—, , and even , the latter of which focuses on the origins of nature writing—resemble each other in content and approach. The later volumes, starting with , begin to address a wider range of “second wave” concerns. Coupe provides an extensive overview of literary periods in ecocriticism, beginning with the Romantics. is a volume devoted entirely to American environmental poetry. is the most recent and comprehensive reader in this list, except for perhaps , although it does not offer the pedagogical elements that does. A significant gap at the moment in ecocritical anthologies remains the lack of a complete anthology of environmental writers from around the globe.
Histories of imperialism and capitalism have continually threatened not only indigenous populations around the world, but also environmental biodiversity through forms of economic, cultural, and geographical conquest. Postcolonial ecocriticism is an attempt to examine overlapping issues among histories of colonialism and environmental destruction. The phrase, however, creates a somewhat fraught distinction, because scholars within this field investigate much more than protecting the natural world and indigenous populations from oppression. In 2010 a series of influential books were published on the subject. provides one of the more compelling and earliest introductions to postcolonial ecocriticism; it underscores the complexity of joining these terms (i.e., postcolonial + ecocriticism) in specific histories and geographies. adds another dimension to the politics of colonialism by examining animals alongside environmental degradation. examines the relationship between globalized mass tourism and its ecological effects on sensitive ecosystems, which are often located in former colonies and exposed by writers. includes essays from a number of contributors to explore postcolonial narratives in different parts of the world. looks generally at the role of the global postcolonial writer as an activist responding to environmental destruction. furthers the view of the writer as an activist and argues that environmental damage occurs slowly over time and appears almost invisible, despite the violence ecological degradation causes the poor in the Global South. incorporates essays from well-established postcolonial scholars to address global examples of postcolonial ecocriticism. uses postcolonial writers to illustrate a how literature can fundamentally alter our consciousness.
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