These three social pillars were changed forever.

A Web visitor has submitted some awesome pictures of a hand made medieval crossbow. The stock is carved in the shape and form of a dragon and it's absolutely beautiful! Check out more (and bigger) pictures of this awesome crossbow -

Search the text of the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso for keywords and names.

This is definitely an unusual weapon and I have gotten lots of guesses but it looks like one web visitor has categorized this correctly. Read the probable solution on the weapons page at the link above.

A little bit about the Latin Alphabet

Due to this extreme weather, very low crops yielded and those that grew were dying.

STAGE ICall to adventure--some new threat or challenge appears in the protagonist's community.
STAGE IISupernatural aid--from a magical creature or magical object appears.
STAGE III Confrontation--The hero confronts the threshhold of danger, often a guardian or villain, that thrwarts him.
STAGE IVEducation--Aid comes from a helper and/or mentor figures to show him how to bypass challenges and temptations.
STAGE VRevelation--The hero experiences revelation--often in the form of an abyss or a symbolic death and rebirth.
STAGE VIResurrection--The hero is transformed, resurrected, or somehow makes atonment, often receiving a concrete or abstract gift from a divine source like a god or goddess-figure
STAGE VIIReturn--The hero returns home. Once there, he re-establishes order or peace, often becoming a new ruler.

The end of the old ancient majuscule scripts

History, aided by a simple system of ethics derived from the grammarof theology, will provide much suitable material for discussion: Was thebehavior of this statesman justified? What was the effect of such an enactment?What are the arguments for and against this or that form of government?We shall thus get an introduction to constitutional history--a subjectmeaningless to the young child, but of absorbing interest to those whoare prepared to argue and debate. Theology itself will furnish materialfor argument about conduct and morals; and should have its scope extendedby a simplified course of dogmatic theology (i.e., the rational structureof Christian thought), clarifying the relations between the dogma and theethics, and lending itself to that application of ethical principles inparticular instances which is properly called casuistry. Geography andthe Sciences will likewise provide material for Dialectic.

The European Christian’s of the time were racist towards the Jews.

Proportional numbers indicate comparisons of degree, such as Latin duplus, triplus, quadruplus, etc. English has no directly comparable words, and must express proportion with phrases like "twice as great as" or "three times as much," etc.

Cotton Nero A.X.4 - Susan Welstead [.pdf]

Multiplicative numbers indicate the number of times something multiplies or recurs, such as the English words single, double, triple, or quadruple, or the Latin words simplex, duplex, triplex, and quater, etc.

Lewis as a Medievalist - Masako Takagi

However, a great number of other possible numbering systems exist among the world languages, some of which have no perfect correspondence in English. These include the following: