Cocaine and Crack (the freebase form of Cocaine) use in the United States has increased in recent years (Askin, 2001). "In 1997, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse estimated that 1.5 million Americans were using cocaine and 2.6 million were considered occasional users" (Askin, 2001). While the long-term effects of Cocaine exposure in utero have not been conclusively established, many researchers agree that children who were exposed to Cocaine in utero most likely sustained some degree of damage. The difficulty researchers find with labeling specific problems associated with Cocaine use during pregnancy is the fact that many women abuse more than one drug (polydrug use) thereby making it difficult to isolate the affects of Cocaine (Kandall, 1999). However, "brain, kidney, and urogenital system malformations in neonates are strongly associated with maternal cocaine intake; gastroschisis is one other fetal anomaly that may be related to cocaine use" (Askin, 2001).
We now understand much better why substance use disorders are so hard to treat. As use becomes an ingrained behavior, impulsivity shifts to compulsivity, and the primary drivers of repeated substance use shift from positive reinforcement (feeling pleasure) to negative reinforcement (feeling relief), as the person seeks to stop the negative feelings and physical illness that accompany withdrawal. Eventually, the person begins taking the substance not to get “high,” but rather to escape the “low” feelings to which, ironically, chronic drug use has contributed. Compulsive substance seeking is a key characteristic of addiction, as is the loss of control over use. Compulsivity helps to explain why many people with addiction experience relapse after attempting to abstain from or reduce use.
3. Are any new characters introduced in Just Another Hero?
The first American mutual self-help movement was the Washingtonians, started in 1840. The movement was an immediate success. At its peak, it reached many hundreds of thousands. They went to taverns to recruit. Washingtonians, or most of them, “believed that social camaraderie was sufficient to sustain sobriety and that a religious component would only discourage drinkers from joining.”
6. The medication naltrexone (see below);
Browse our collection of essays on controversial topics. Each topic in this category represents a controversial issue and thus is a good choice if you are looking for or . When writing an or a you should focus on picking a topic that is current and relevant to society and can be argued logically.
7. Behavioral Self-Control Training (a moderation approach);
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Retrieved from
Of the 48 approaches ranked, the evidence is weakest for:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Surgeon General, Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. Washington, DC: HHS, November 2016, at p. 1-8 .
47. General Alcoholism Counseling;
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Rockville, MD. , (March 20, 2013), .
45. Confrontational Counseling;
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Surgeon General, Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. Washington, DC: HHS, November 2016.