As a useful starting point, Steckler et al. (1992) have delineated four possible models of integrating qualitative and quantitative methods in health education research. In the first approach, qualitative methods contribute to the development of quantitative instruments, such as the use of focus groups in questionnaire construction. The second model consists of a primarily quantitative study that uses qualitative results to help interpret or explain the quantitative findings. In the third approach, quantitative results help interpret predominantly qualitative findings, as when focus group participants are asked to fill out survey questionnaires at the session. In the fourth model, the two methodologies are used equally and in parallel to cross-validate and build upon each other's results. Social marketers may operate under one or more of these models; the approaches are not mutually exclusive.
Integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods lends depth and clarity to social marketing programs. This combination of approaches is necessary because of the wide range of data needed to develop effective communications. However, the potential for problems exists when attempting to combine such divergent research paradigms; one may end up not doing either type of research well. This integrative approach therefore requires a research team with expertise in both types of methods. Using multiple approaches can also be time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive. Another obstacle, which will likely change as social marketing gains in usage, is that combining multiple methods is still not widely accepted as a viable research strategy--at least in mainstream public health circles. As social marketers demonstrate that such research is necessary to fully understand and address many health-related issues, the research norms and scientific dogma regarding appropriate methods may shift to a new, more integrative paradigm.
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Essay examples | …
In order to carry out an efficient research into a specific field of study there are several factors and steps to consider. To begin with, an efficient researcher identifies a gap in the available knowledge about a particular topic or issue that previous researchers may have researched little on or overlooked completely (Mertler, 2006). It is then important to identify the form of research to be carried out, whether it is of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. This will be determined by whether the issues being addressed can be quantified or can be assessed by behavior and reasoning. The next step involves the review of previous literature by first selecting relevant materials and properly citing it in the works using a professional format. This format will also come in handy during the final stage which involves writing the actual report and will give it the required credibility.
Qualitative and quantitative research methods essay
When comparing the two forms of research it is apparent that quantitative research uses deductive mathematical models to analyze the hypotheses formed in the study of natural phenomena while qualitative research involves the use of prior knowledge to form interpretations that are more subjective. Another difference between the two forms of study is the nature of quantitative research being replicable as data collected in a quantitative survey can be analyzed and used in the comparison of a repeated study at a later time. Qualitative research is not easily repeatable as it deals with inductive data that cannot be directly used in comparison with data obtained with qualitative studies covered at a later time.
A+, Quantitative and Qualitative Research Review: …
Qualitative research involves the use of procedures that rely on findings based on human reasoning and behavior. It engages research designs that emphasize the collection of data that is related to naturally occurring phenomena. The assessment of collected data does not involve any form of enumeration but rather seek to understand the phenomena from which they are obtained. Quantitative research on the other hand entails the use of numbers, statistics, control and structure. Methods used in quantitative research involve systematic prediction, determination and generalization of findings to describe the data collected. The phenomena studied are compared with their quantitative properties and the same can be extended to various aspects of education (Johnson & Larry, 2007).