c. 13,000 BCE by boat and 9,000 BCE by land

The Portuguese presence, as with all European invaders, meant native genocide, but the Portuguese colonial experience was gentler than Spain’s. Probably mainly due to Portugal’s past, with its many races and ethnic groups living together, due to its many invasions and forced migrations over the millennia, the Portuguese colonial experience was the least racist in character of Europe's powers. Consequently, Portugal had a more harmonious racial mixing with those that it conquered and traded with, which is reflected in Brazil’s multi-ethnic harmony today.

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The murderous hypocrisy of the USA regarding Yugoslavia was breathtaking. Not only was everything about the NATO intervention illegal (NATO was the fig leaf the USA used when it was obvious that the UN would never approve of the USA's bombing of Yugoslavia), the rationale fed the American people does not survive the barest scrutiny. The issue was supposedly Kosovo gaining its freedom. The bloodiest war in the USA's history was fought over the . The USA supported the extremely bloody Russian campaign to keep Chechnya from seceding. Puerto Rico has a much more legitimate reason to secede from the USA than Kosovo had for seceding from Serbia, yet the CIA and other organizations devoted a great deal of effort toward derailing Puerto Rican movements for freedom from the USA, and remember the .

Via Siberia-Alaska (15 kya by boat, 11 kya by land)

The disintegration of Yugoslavia was a bloody affair, and all sides (Serbs, Croats, Muslims, Albanians, etc.) committed heinous atrocities. To single out the Serbs as the bad guys was a convenience for American propagandists. While Milosevic was no angel, Croatian president, Franjo Tudjman, was openly fascist. He wrote a 1989 book that justified Hitler’s Holocaust of the Jews (in his words, Europe needed to be “rid of the Jews”), and he was friendly with some of the worst Nazi-aligned Croatian war criminals of World War II. He once told a crowd that he thanked god that his wife was not a Serb or a Jew. He originally was a seemingly responsible historical revisionist regarding how many people died at the hands of the Nazi-aligned Croatian government during World War II, but his scholarship eventually degenerated into outright and Holocaust apologetics. He eventually took the position that less than a million Jews died during the Final Solution. Muslims suffered greatly during Yugoslavia’s breakup, perhaps more than any other single group, but they were also no angels who apparently bombed their own people and tried to blame it on Serbs, as even admitted by UN investigators. When Serbs overran Muslim positions during fighting, they found that Muslim soldiers were collecting heads of fallen Serbian soldiers. Those headhunting soldiers were often the same ones that the to create the .

Tzu-lu asked permission to offer a prayer.

The are officially UN institutions, but as with the UN itself, the rich and powerful dominate them. Western banks, particularly American, control the IMF and World Bank. One can find many people in the IMF, World Bank, and other neocolonial institutions such as the CIA, , USAID, etc., who think they are truly helping those subject to their policies. A waking up to what really happens is rare in such institutions, and of course, there are those , but it is unacceptable to publicly admit the real game, but .

Further prayers are unnecessary.

SAPs are notorious for how they restructured the national economies of the subject nations. Instead of growing food for domestic consumption, they had to grow food for export to the USA, to earn “foreign exchange.” SAPs played a major role in that situation. Under SAPs, social spending is slashed for education, medical care, housing, affordable food, and so on. For instance, around 2000, the African nations of Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Niger, and Tanzania spent more than twice as much money servicing their foreign debt as they spent for primary medical care, in nations where children were starving, illiterate, etc. To the people in those devastated nations, what is happening is merely . They still do not eat the food they grow. Their nation’s resources, whether they are crops, mining products, timber, or their labor, still end up going to the imperial powers, while the common people starve and live in destitution. About the only difference is that they get to fly their own flag. Flags are not edible, unfortunately.

, and Egypt comes under Roman rule the next year.

In Third World nations, the deal was much worse than communist nations received. In communist nations, the loans generally went to productive activity that benefited the domestic population. In Third World nations, the loans all too often went to luxury items for the elite, public works projects that did not benefit the average citizen (but benefited Western capitalists), or the money went straight into the dictator’s Swiss bank account. When it came time to repay the loans, the dictators did not empty their Swiss bank accounts, and the elite did not sell their Mercedes luxury sedans bought with the loans.